Introduction:
In the mid-1850s the ancestors of the 12 aboriginal tribes were nomadic, following the seasons of nature and their sources of food. The colville tribe grouped primarily aroung waterways such as the Columbia River, the San Poil River, the Okanogan River, the Snake River and the Wallowa River. they would gather with other native peoples for traditional activities such as food harvesting, feasting trading and celebrations that included sports and gambling. Their lives were tied to the cycles of nature both spiritually and traditionally.
Location:
The nomadic lifestyles of our ancestors have always perplexed non-Indian historians who insist on identifying indigenous native people by specific geographical locations. Our forefathers knew no boundaries until the invasion of Europeans, other than those established by some tribes in certain areas.
Language:
The colville Business council has charged this division with preserving, promoting and revitalizingour languages, cultures and cultural resources. through recording, carfully preserving and telling the stories of our elders (captikl), tribal members and cultural properties, the cultural preservation division will achieve these objectives.
- Three language progams
-Develop language dictionaries, provide translation services, provide curriculum, and access to fluent speakers.
- conduct language classes with 30+ people a month
Clothing:
buckskin, beaver, bear, and buffalo hide. The men wore robes during the cold months, and the women wore dresses, leggings and moccasins, leggings, moccasins, shirts, dresses and skirts.
Diet and/or Food sources:
The Colville or Chualpay people were semi-nomadic hunters and gathers,with deer being the primary game andimal. fishing and trapping rabbits and squirrels, plus clams were also regular food sources.
Types of Shelter:
The Plateau Indians seldom used permanent shelters. Nomadic people, who must move frequently, require a form of shelter that is quick and easy to put up and take down. The vast majority of Plateau Indians lived in tepees or tipis. The tepee was a come frame shelter of several long poles covered by woven mats and/or hides of animals. some Shoshoni Indians made grass covered houses to live in during the hot summers.
Transportation:
The main way of transportation for the plateau Indians were walking and riding horses.
Economic Activities:
The economic activities of the Plateau Indians were similar to those of their coastal neighbors, yet there were some major differences as well. the Plateau Indians were mire skilled in animal husbandry and horsemanship. However, their canoe building was not as skilled or elaborate as the bows and arrows, spoons, ladles, storage boxes, and the like. The Plateau Indians used many of the same objects and materials.
Tools and Implements:
The Native Americans' tools and implements were primitive. The Coastal Indians did not use metal tools until after the arrival of Europeans. Instead, they used materials such as horns, animal bone, animal hair, wood, rock, grasses, and shells to create woven baskets, blankets, adzes, hammers, chisels, knives, fishhooks, harpoons, spears, clubs.
Recreation and Games:
The pacific Northwest Native Americans participated in a variety of recreational and athletic activities. Many of the recreational activities provided opportunities for individuals to express bravery and athletic skills while competing against one another. Activities included canoe racing, foot races, tug-of-war, wrestling, bow-and-arrow contests, spear throwing, horsemanship and gambling.
Social Organization:
Family members shared food, transportation, and shelter. the male was dominant, while the female was rather subservient to the male. The male was provider and protector of the family. His responsibilities included hunting, fishing, conducting the formal business of the tribe and family, and was a warrior in battle. The women handled the day-to-day household routine and cared for the children. they dug roots, gathered fruits and berries, made clothing, and prepared meals.
Attitude toward child rearing:
The Native American youth respected their elders. Children were shown much love and care by their parents. guidance was in the form of praise for good behavior and ridicule for bad behavior. Indian parents sometimes threatened their children with evil spirits, but seldom physically punished them.
Governmental structure:
The Plateau State administrative structure consists of the State Cabinet, the House of Assembly and Local Government Areas. The House of Assembly consists of 25 members and 11 special advisers. Plateau State is also divided into chiefdoms and emirates, each encompassing ethnic groups who share common affinities.