Industrialization and Global Integration 1750 to 1900


~ 1750 SNAPSHOT

  • early Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
  • ethnocentric Qing China (Manchus) facing domestic crises
  • large, decentralizing and weakening, Ottoman empire w/ disengaged sultans
  • Russia - huge land based empire, partially westernized by Peter the Great, Catherine the Great
  • absolute and constitutional monarchs in Europe
  • Ireland, coastal India, Caribbean islands key peripheries in maritime British Empire
  • large Spanish and Portuguese peripheries in Americas
  • feudalistic, isolated, peaceful, and relatively prosperous Tokugawa Shogunate - Japan
  • extensive slave, natural resources and product trade in Atlantic Ocean
  • Seven Years War - global British and French conflict
  • most American colonists perceive themselves as loyal British citizens
  • European/western birth rate declining (slowing population growth rate) - migrations to colonies

Key Concept 5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism

  1. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced.
    • Variety of factors led to the rise of industrial production – Required examples:
      • Europe’s location on the Atlantic Ocean
      • geographical distribution of coal, iron, and timber
      • European demographic/population changes
      • urbanization
      • improved agricultural productivity
      • abundance of rivers and canals
      • access to foreign resources
      • accumulation of capital (money) AND
      • legal protection of private property (and other “Commercial revolution” factors)
    • Development of steam engine, internal combustion engine, and other machines made access and mining of coal and oil possible - “fossil fuels” energy revolution
    • Factory system concentrated labor in one location – led to more specialization of labor
    • NW Europe methods of industrial production spread to rest of Eur., U.S., Russia, and Japan
    • “2nd industrial revolution” – better methods of production of steel, chemicals, electricity, and precision machinery – 2nd half of 1800s (nineteenth century)
  2. Industrialists acquired more raw materials and markets for factory goods
    • Factory needs for natural resources and food for increased urban populations led to some colonies/peripheries or states mass producing single natural resources. Profits from sale of raw materials often used to buy finished factory goods
      • One example of production and export of single natural resources: cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, wheat, meat, guano, OR metals and minerals
    • The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economies.
      • Required example: textile production in India
    • Industrial states looked for new consumer markets for their finished goods.
      • Required example:: British and French attempts to “open up” the Chinese market in the 19th century
    • Gold, silver, diamonds, copper, and other specialized and limited metals in high demand – led to development of new mining centers
      • One example: copper mines in Mexico OR gold and diamond mines in South Africa
  3. Various financial institutions developed by financiers encouraged and facilitated investments at all levels of industrial production.
    • Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill were ideological inspirations for economic changes and development of capitalism and classical liberalism.
    • Financial instruments or institutions expanded.
      • One example: stock markets, insurance, gold standard OR limited liability corporations
    • Many large scale transnational businesses reflected global nature of production and trade.
      • One example: United Fruit Company OR The HSBC – Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corp.
    • Major developments in transportation and communications
      • Required examples: railroads, steamships, telegraphs, AND canals
  4. Responses to the development and spread of global capitalism varied.
    • Many workers organized in industrialized states to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages. Others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions of society.
      • One example: utopian socialism, Marxism, anarchism
    • In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change & attempted to maintain pre-industrial, traditional forms of economic production.
    • State sponsored visions of industrialism promoted by a small number of states
      • One example: Meiji Japan economic reforms, Tsarist Russia factories & railroads, China’s Self-Strengthen-ing Movement, OR Muhammad Ali’s development of Egypt’s cotton textiles industry
    • Various types of reforms promoted by some governments to lessen/mitigate the most negative effects of industrial capitalism – in response to criticism of industrial capitalism
      • One example of reforms: state pensions and public health in Germany, expansion of suffrage (voting rights) in Britain OR public education in many states (1st in U.S.)
  5. Industrial states socio-economic classes/hierarchies & gender status changed.
    • New middle class and industrial classes developed.
    • Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed due to industrialization.
    • Rapid urbanization that accompanied global industrial capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions.

Key Concept 5.2 Imperialism and Nation-State Formation

  1. Industrializing powers established transoceanic (overseas, maritime) empires.
    • A. Core states (France, Japan, etc.) strengthened control over those peripheries/colonies.
      • One example: British in India OR Dutch in Indonesia
    • European core states, the U.S., and Japan established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.
      • One example: of European states that established empires: British, Dutch, French, German OR Russian
    • Many European core states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa.
      • One example: Great Britain or France in West Africa OR Belgium in the Congo
    • Settler colonies were established by Europeans in some regions of their empires.
      • One example: British in southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand OR French in Algeria
    • Economic imperialism was practiced by core states in various regions of the world.
      • One example: British and French spheres of interest/enclaves established in China through the Opium War OR British and the U.S. investing heavily in Latin America
  2. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world.
    • Expanding U.S. and European influence in Tokugawa Japan influenced the Meiji Restoration.
    • The U.S. and Russia expanded their land borders and conquered neighboring territories.
    • Anti-imperial resistance led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire.
      • One example: establishment of independent Balkan states, semi-independence in Egypt and French and Italian colonies/peripheries in North Africa OR later British influence in Egypt
    • New states developed on the edges of existing empires.
      • One example: the Cherokee Nation, Siam, Hawai’I, OR the Zulu Kingdom
    • Nationalism developed and spread as an ideology and encouraged new communal identities
      • One example of new nationalism: Germany, The Philippines, OR Liberia
  3. Social Darwinism and other new racial ideologies justified and facilitated imperialism.

Key Concept 5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform

  1. Enlightenment philosophy that questioned established traditions often preceded & led in part to rebellions and revolutions against existing governments.
    • Philosophers applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships,encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life.
      • One example: Voltaire OR Rousseau
    • Intellectuals critiqued the role religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason, as opposed to revelation.
    • Enlightenment philosophers/thinkers developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract.
      • One example: Locke OR Montesquieu
    • Enlightenment ideas influenced resistance to existing political authority, as reflected in revolutionary documents.
      • Required examples: American Declaration of Independence, French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, AND Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter
    • Enlightenment ideas led to expanded suffrage (voting rights), abolition of slavery, AND the end of serfdom.
  2. Nationalism: In the 18th century, people around the world developed a new sense of shared commonality/nationalism based on language, religion, social customs, and territory. Newly imagined nationalism was linked with the borders of the state, while governments used nationalism to unite diverse populations.
  3. Increasing discontent with imperial rule led to reformist and revolutionary movements
    • Subjects challenged centralized imperial governments.
      • One example: challenge of the Marathas to the Mughal sultans
    • American colonial subjects rebelled, leading to an independent U.S., and facilitated and inspired independent states in Haiti, and mainland Latin America. French subjects rebelled against their monarch.
      • Required examples: American Revolution (or War of Independence), French Revolution, Haitian Revolution, AND Latin America independence movements
    • Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas.
      • Required example: Maroon societies
    • Anti-colonial movements grew from nationalism and questions about political authority.
      • Required example: 1857 Indian/Sepoy Mutiny OR the Boxer Rebellion
    • Religious ideals and millenarianism (those who believe in a coming time of great peace and prosperity) influenced some rebellions.
      • One example: Taiping Rebellion, Ghost Dance, OR Xhosa Cattle-Killing Movement
    • Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms in imperial policies.
      • One example: Tanzimat movement OR Self-Strengthening Movement
  4. The global spread of European political and social thought and an increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.
    • Liberalism, socialism, & communism developed from discontent w/ monarchist & imperial rule.
    • Demands for women’s suffrage (voting rights) and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies.
      • One example: Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Olympe deGouges’s “Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen” OR resolutions passed at the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848

Key Concept 5.4 Global Migration

  1. Demographic (population) changes in both industrialized and unindustrialized societies that suffered various problems and challenges influenced migration.
    • Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population.
    • Increased global urbanization (both internal and external) was influenced by the availability of new methods of long distance transportation.
  2. Migrants relocated for a variety of reasons.
    • Voluntary migrants - Many chose freely to relocate, often in search of work.
      • One example: manual laborers OR specialized professionals
    • The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced migrant labor.
      • Required example: slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude AND convict labor
    • Many temporary and seasonal migrants returned to their home societies, while others permanently relocated.
      • One example: Japanese agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas, OR Italians in Argentina
  3. Consequences and reactions to large scale 19th century migration varied among migrants and existing populations in the increasingly diverse societies.
    • Migrants tended to be male, due to the physical nature of the labor in demand. That often left women to take on new roles in the home society that were formerly male roles.
    • Ethnic enclaves (“islands”) were created by migrants in different regions of the world to help transplant their culture into new environments and create migrant support networks.
      • One example: Chinese in SE Asia, Caribbean, So. & No. America OR Indians in E. and southern Africa, the Caribbean, and SE Asia
    • Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the flow of people across their borders.
      • One example: Chinese Exclusion Act OR White Australia Policy

Continuities

  • European imperialism
  • slavery
  • transregional and maritime trade, exchanges, and communication
  • rapid population growth (except Africa)
  • rigid social hierarchies
  • patriarchy